This is the third article from a series of three. My intention is to help newbies /non-designers to see clearly when they might want to use a tool or a method in a Design Thinking (DT) project timeline. In this article I focus on the second part of a project, with tools and methods to help you create an effective solution. The first article is an introduction to the DT mindset. The second article is about methodologies to find the real problem.
A quick recap: The Mindset
In this step-by-step article,I break down my way of work into 10 How to questions. I answer them by pointing out which tool, method or approach I use, what should be my way of thinking (convergent or divergent), and if the focus is on the problem or on the solution. Then, I connect it with the Stanford d.School framework, to show how all of this can make sense together.
To make this article more straight to the point. I answer each question with the main goal of the step, a few methods that I apply more often, and some other factors you might want to keep in mind when building your own framework.
Let’s start again
5. How to transform a learning point into (many) ideas?
way of thinking: DIVERGENT
goal: This is the first step focused on the solution. It is a big brainstorm moment. This is a phase with lots of fun situations. You might want to follow some rules to make sure you bring up the best of each participant. Collaboration is a keyword here. Co-creation sections with people from diverse areas within the company are the best source of ideas. The objective is to generate as many ideas as possible. I usually do it in three steps. Firstly, I organize a solo activity. This means that each participant thinks and draws their ideas by themselves. After that, I divide them into small groups to co-create. Finally, I ask them to share their ideas with the whole group. Encouraging the group to express their ideas visually might be a challenge, but it is really important. Visual thinking is a powerful tool, try the bird exercise to warm them up.
methods: Mind Map: A good warm-up activity for non-visual participants to express their thoughts and see different connections. Ideation Session: You can use workshops in any stage of the process, but here they are almost mandatory. Co-creation is one of the best ways to bring ownership to all members of the team. Crazy 8: A simple and good exercise to help the team go beyond the obvious solutions. How Might We: The solution — in this phase — doesn’t need to be perfect. This question helps everyone turn on their imaginative mode.
other things to keep in mind: principles to opportunity, ideation game, role-play ideation, design sprint.
6. How to select the best ideas?
way of thinking: CONVERGENT
goal: If you did a good job at the previous stage, you are now buried under tons of ideas. Try not to do these two phases at the same time. A good night of sleep will restore people’s energy and a clear view of the crazy ideas they had. Before analyzing the ideas, you need to review: the challenge, the success metrics, and the experience/design principles. You might have some very good ideas in your hands. However, people get lost and sometimes their creations don’t answer the challenge properly.
methods: Heatmap voting: By using dots stickers you can democratize a voting session. The participants don’t need to vote for a whole idea — instead, they can choose part of an idea. MoSCoW: one of the best ways to prioritize ideas is to understand the acronym for Must, Should, Could and Would. Create a Pitch (or Elevator Pitch): Not everyone in the group likes a given idea for the same reason. Writing a pitch helps the team organize their thoughts by stating the purpose of the idea in one phrase.
other things to keep in mind: mash-ups, morphological synthesis, Kano Model, Concept-linking Map, Gut Check, Concept Catalog.
7. How to prototype?
way of thinking: DIVERGENT
goal: You may have to choose up to three ideas. Now, it is time to see if the possible user also thinks these ideas are going to work, or which idea is the best one. Telling someone an idea is a completely different experience than when they interact with the real solution. Building the real solution takes time and money. You need to find the best way for real users to interact with your solution. This has to be made in a short period and spending as little money as possible. Try to remember how you used to play when you were a kid. Let’s build something that helps our users get into our game and pretend with us.
methods: Wireframe: Almost all solutions have a digital touchpoint. Drawing a wireframe — or a rapid wireframe or paper wireframe — can make this idea tangible. It should simulate each screen of the task that your user will have to try in the next step. Storyboard: When you tell a story, you help people around you imagine themselves as the main character. It also helps you see the whole picture. The storyboard means when, how, and where your product will be used. Role Play: If your product involves a real service, you should try a role play activity. This might look weird at first, and people might need a few seconds to remember how to play it. Everyone has played this game in their childhood.
other things to keep in mind: storytelling, minimum viable product (MVP) or service (MVS), business origami, solution diagram, lego serious play, concept sketch.
8. How to choose the best prototypes?
way of thinking: CONVERGENT
goal: With the prototypes in hand you start to feel more connected with the solutions. However, remember that even if you fall in love with one of the prototypes, don’t let your feelings talk too loud. Keep in mind that the user/customer is the only one who can really judge it. The problem has to be fixed from their perspective. You can also use all recommendations that I gave to you at question 3 (The Customer). By the end of this stage it is a good moment to create a document with all learning points.. The next step is to implement the solution. Probably the teamwork will be bigger and this document will help every new member to get into project on the same page.
methods: Recruiting: Planning ahead the interviews is crucial. Part of it is to understand who might be the users to represent all personas you have developed. Usability test: If you have a digital prototype, this test is the best option. Prepare your list of tasks and have fun.
other things to keep in mind: solution valuations, perspective Value Web, Concept Evaluation.
9. How to implement the project?
way of thinking: PRACTICAL/FOCUSED
goal: So far, the project is still a product of the team’s imagination. Turning it into a real thing is a hard step. As a designer, we may stay with the teamwork until the project really starts. The teamwork is bigger now, and even if they are all on the same page, they don’t have a strong ownership as the ones who participated in the 8 first questions. You need to find ways to create the same feeling for them. If they don’t embrace the solution, the project might lose a lot of the mojo.
methods: Team formation plan: This is all about finding the right ones to conduct the project. Pilot development: Before going to the market for real, the team can build a pilot. It’s a small version of your product so you can feel how people you respond to that in real life .
other things to keep in mind: roadmap, KPI Setup (UX checklist), strategy plan workshop.
10. How to know if we are on the right path?
way of thinking: PRACTICAL/FOCUSED + DIVERGENT
goal: This is a research stage, just like steps 3 and 8, and you will use all of those previously cited methods. Different than those steps, now you have a new real product with real customer interaction. We always have things to learn. The end is just a different way to say new beginning. The small bugs can be solved through teamwork, but sometimes other challenges emerge at this moment. A new project might pop up at any time. The projects are cyclic. In this phase you probably are less involved. But, if you disappear there is a huge chance that the project will loose the established path. Try to set up a sequence of meetings so you can stay connected. During these meetings you can help team members to keep in mind the original challenge and how the selected solution can resolve it.
methods: Collect feedback: You have to create an environment where people feel comfortable to give feedback in any stage of the project. Keep your ears open to listen all kinds of feedback. Data analysis: I am a people person, and I love to do interviews. This is just one side of the process, you need to learn how to read data to find out what is happening, and complement that with other more human-centered methodologies to understand why it is happening.
other things to keep in mind:lean ux, learning points, rewrite your problems into opportunities.
Echos School of Design Thinking - Terms and Conditions
This website at www.schoolofdesignthinking.echos.cc (Site) is a website where you can browse, select and enroll in educational and innovation knowledge courses (Courses) advertised on the Site from Echos Innovation Lab Pty Ltd ABN 65 617 491 424 (Echos, us or we).
Please read these terms and conditions before accessing or using the Site. If you are under 18 years of age, then you must obtain your parent or guardian’s consent before accessing and using the Site.
Your access to and use of the Site, including your enrolment or participation in Courses through the Site, is subject to these terms and conditions.
The terms and conditions also apply to the sale of any Courses via methods other than the Site, including where Courses are given as a gift, sales by telephone, in person or other means, unless otherwise agreed in writing.
The information contained in this Site and in any Courses is provided in good faith on an "as is" basis. Echos does not represent or warrant the reliability, accuracy or completeness of the information contained on this Site and does not claim, represent or warrant the suitability of any Courses for any person. Courses and any materials provided as part of the Courses (Course Materials) are intended as a learning aid and guide only, and are not a substitute for tailored advice or your own study. To the extent permitted by law, Echos is not responsible or liable for any Liabilities (direct, indirect or consequential losses and damages) arising in any way (including without limitation negligence) for errors in, or omissions from, the information in this Site, the Course or Course Materials.
acknowledge that the copyright in the Site, the software, design, text and graphics comprised in the Site, the selection and layout of the Site and the content and materials on the Site (together, the Material), the Courses and Course Materials are owned by or licensed to us;
must not modify, copy, adapt, store in a retrieval system, reproduce, upload, post, transmit, sell, distribute in any way or communicate to the public any Material, Courses or Course Materials without our prior written consent; and
must not frame or embed in another website any of the material appearing on this Site, the Courses or Course Materials without our prior written consent.
store a reproduction of the content on this Site on your local computer for the sole purpose of viewing the content and Materials; and
print hard copies of the content and Materials for the sole purpose of viewing and purchasing Courses but not for any other use, including commercial use.
This Site, the Courses, the Course Materials and any ancillary materials or documents owned or used by Echos in connection with the sale of the Courses and promotion of its business contains registered trademarks which are protected by law and other branding, images, content which constitute the intellectual property of Echos. You must not use any of the marks or trademarks appearing on the Site or our name or the names of our related bodies corporate or any of our intellectual property without our prior written consent.
Echos does not claim that any information (including any files) obtained from or through this Site is free from viruses or other faults or defects.
You are responsible for scanning any information for viruses.
You agree that Echos has no responsibility or liability to you or any other person for any loss or damage (whether direct, indirect, consequential or economic), regardless of cause, negligence or otherwise, which may be the direct or indirect result of any such information.
If Echos is found to be liable this will be limited to the cost of supplying the information again.
Compliance with these Terms and Conditions
You agree to bound by, and comply with, these terms and conditions by:
using the Site;
completing your enrolment and purchasing tickets for the Courses through the Site; and/or
obtaining tickets and enrolling in Courses from us using the Site or by any other method of sale or where you receive tickets as a gift from any third party.
Changes to these Terms and Conditions
If you have an enrolment that has been accepted by us, the terms and conditions that will apply to that enrolment are the terms and conditions that applied at the time you placed your enrolment request. We cannot vary the terms and conditions which apply to a given enrolment after that enrolment is accepted by us.
Subject to clause 6.1, we may change these terms and conditions at any time, and such modifications will be effective as soon as they are posted. By continuing to use the Site after these terms and conditions have been modified, you agree to be bound by the changes to these terms and conditions.
Purchasing Tickets for Courses
You may enroll in Courses by selecting tickets and submitting your enrolment through the Site in accordance with these terms and conditions.
Any registration placed through this Site for a Course is an offer by you to purchase ticket(s) in the selected Course for the price notified (including any delivery or other charges and taxes) at the time you place the request for the tickets.
We may ask you to provide additional details or require you to confirm your details to enable us to process your enrolment through the Site.
You agree to provide us with current, complete and accurate details when asked to do so by the Site.
Acceptance or Rejection of an Enrolment
We reserve the right to accept or reject your enrolment and purchase of tickets in any Course for any reason, including (without limitation) if the requested Course is not available (or fully booked), if there is an error in the price or the Course description posted on the Site.
Each enrolment for Courses through the Site or any other means that we accept results in a separate binding agreement between you and us for the supply of those Courses. For each enrolment accepted by us, we will supply the Courses in that enrolment to you in accordance with these terms and conditions.
If we reject an enrolment placed through the Site, then we will endeavour to notify you of that rejection at the time you purchase the tickets and enroll or within a reasonable time thereafter.
Cancelling, Changing or Postponing a Course (by Us)
Prior to the commencement of a Course, we may cancel, change or postpone the Course without any liability to you if:
the requested Course is not available, undersold or oversold;
the requested Course needs to be postponed or changed due to the unavailability of a venue, speaker, operator or for any other reason outside our reasonable control;
there is an error in the price or the description posted on the Site or in any other sales platform in relation to the relevant Course; or
your enrolment or conduct is in breach of these terms and conditions.
10.2.If we do cancel, change or postpone your Course, then we will endeavor to provide you with reasonable notice of that cancellation, change or postponement, and will provide you with a credit voucher, ticket in a similar Course, ticket in the same Course at a later date suitable to you, or a refund, provided that you are not at fault or in breach of these terms and conditions.
Cancelling or Requesting to change a Course (by You)
Tickets purchased for Courses may not be cancelled once payment has been submitted via this Site or via any other method of sale. However, should you wish to change a Course, attend the same Course at a later or earlier date, obtain a credit voucher or transfer the Course enrolment to a friend, please Contact Us and we will endeavor to assist you.
Delivery of Courses
Information on Course times, locations, Course Materials and other key information is set out on this Site and will be outlined in the enrolment and ticket purchasing process.
Prices, Fees and Charges
The prices of Courses and other charges displayed on this Site are current at the time of issue, however, Echos reserves the right to change prices at any time before we accept an enrolment from you.
13.2.All prices shown on this Site are in Australian Dollars (AUD).
13.3.All fees and charges identified in these terms and conditions and all prices for the Courses as shown on the Site are inclusive of GST (unless otherwise indicated).
You covenant and warrant that:
all information and data provided by you to us through the Site (including as part of the enrolment registration process) or otherwise is true, accurate, complete and up to date;
the person attending the Courses will be over 18 years of age;
you have and will comply with all relevant laws relating to your use of the Site and your enrolment in any Course;
you will ensure that your LoginID and password that is used to access the Site and the details of your account is kept in a safe and secure manner;
you will promptly notify us if you are or become aware that there is or has been an unauthorised use of your LoginID and password or account, or any other security breach relating to your account;
you will promptly advise us of any changes to your information provided to us as part of the enrolment registration process;
you are responsible for any costs associated with your access to or use of the Site, including Internet access fees;
you are responsible and liable for any person that uses your LoginID and password to purchase tickets in Courses through the Site;
you agree that we may charge you for all Courses that we agree to supply to you that have been ordered using your LoginID and password through the Site.
You must not:
use the Site or the Course Materials for any activities that breach any laws, infringe a third party’s rights or are contrary to any relevant standards or codes;
use the Site in a manner or way, or post to or transmit to or via the Site any material, which interferes with other users or our other customers or defames, harasses, threatens, menaces or offends any person or which prevents any other person from using or enjoying the Site;
make fraudulent or speculative enquiries, purchases or requests through the Site;
use another person’s details without their permission or impersonate another person when using the Site;
post or transmit any obscene, indecent, inflammatory or pornographic material or any other material that may give rise to civil or criminal proceedings;
tamper with or hinder the operation of the Site;
knowingly transmit any viruses, worms, defects, trojan horses or similar disabling or malicious code to the Site;
use any robot, spider, site search and retrieval application or other mechanism to retrieve or index any portion of the Site;
modify, adapt, translate or reverse engineer any portion of the Site;
remove any copyright, trade mark or other proprietary rights notices contained in or on the Site;
reformat or frame any portion of the web pages that are part of the Site;
create accounts by automated means or under false or fraudulent pretences;
use the Site to violate the security of any computer or other network or engage in illegal conduct;
take any action that imposes or that would, in our reasonable opinion, result in an unreasonable or disproportionately large load on our infrastructure;
use the Site other than in accordance with these terms and conditions; or
attempt any of the above acts or engage or permit another person to do any of the above acts.
Warranty and Liability
Echos accepts liability for all legal guarantees and warranties expressed or implied to the transactions under the Australian Consumer Law in Schedule 2 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth), or any other legislation (such as the Fair Trading Acts (or equivalent legislation) in each State and Territory) the effect of which cannot be excluded.
Where we are permitted by law (and subject to clause 15.1):
we do not warrant or represent the suitability of the Site, a Course or the Course Materials for any purpose; and
we will not be liable to you for indirect and consequential loss (including without limitation for loss of revenue, loss of profits, failure to realise expected profits or savings and any other commercial or economic loss of any kind) or loss or corruption of data, in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise (including negligence) arising from or connected to the Site, your participation in the Course or reliance upon any Course Materials.
Our liability to you for loss or damage of any kind arising out of this agreement or in connection with the relationship established by it is reduced to the extent (if any) that you cause or contribute to the loss or damage. This reduction applies whether our liability is in contract, tort (including negligence), under any statute or otherwise.
Termination and/or Suspension of Account
We may immediately suspend, terminate or limit your access to and use of the Site and (where relevant) your account if we reasonably suspect that you have commit fraudulent act and/or you breach these terms and conditions.
If the whole or any part of a provision of this agreement is void, unenforceable or illegal in a jurisdiction it is severed for that jurisdiction. The remainder of this agreement has full force and effect and the validity or enforceability of that provision in any other jurisdiction is not affected. This clause has no effect if the severance alters the basic nature of this agreement or is contrary to public policy.
This agreement is governed by the laws of Australia. Each party submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of that place.
Capitalised terms used are defined in these terms and conditions.
In these terms:
“GST” has the meaning it has in the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999 (Cth)
“Liabilities” means all direct and/or indirect liability for: costs; damages; losses; claims, causes of action, accidents; injuries; deaths; law and traffic violations; and expenses including but not limited to legal fees.
“LoginID” means the email address that you provided to us as part of the registration process to use the Site.
Our business and the purpose of collection
We are in the business of providing educational and innovation knowledge courses (Courses). We collect personal information primarily to provide the Courses to you (Purpose).
In particular, we collect your personal information so that we can carry out the following actions:
to provide you with the Courses and any other products, services and information that you have requested from us;
to communicate with you, including about the Courses, products, services and events which might interest you;
to provide you with information or advice;
process payments by you to us for our services;
to create accounts, tax invoices or receipts;
to provide your personal information to third parties that assist us in providing and/or delivering the Courses or other goods or services you or they have requested;
to consider and respond to feedback from you;
to comply with laws or regulations or to comply with any directions given by regulators or authorities.
We may disclose additional purposes for collection of your personal information in collection statements at the point of collection.
Personal information we collect
When used in this policy, “personal information” has the meaning given to that term in the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth). We may collect the following types of personal information from you:
residential or business address;
financial and payment information;
age and date of birth;
businesses you operate; and
your personal preferences, thoughts, ideas, goals and opinions.
Sensitive information is information about you that reveals your racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs or affiliations, membership of a professional or trade association, membership of a trade union, details of health, disability, sexual orientation or criminal record.
It is our policy to only collect your sensitive information where it is reasonably necessary for our functions or activities and either you have consented or we are required or authorised under law to do so.
How we collect your personal information
Collection of your personal information can occur through the following interactions:
when you communicate with us directly (by email, in person, telephone, direct mail or any other means);
when we interact with you during the Courses or in relation to any other products or services; and/or
when you visit our website and social media pages, or access or contribute to digital platforms and applications managed by us (Online Platforms).
We may use temporary (session) cookies or permanent cookies when you access our Online Platforms. This allows us to recognise your browser and track the web pages you have visited.
You can switch off cookies by adjusting the settings on your web browser.
How we hold your personal information
We may hold your personal information in either electronic or hard copy form.
If you provide information to us electronically we retain this information in our computer systems and databases. If you provide information to us in hard copy (paper) this information is normally retained in our files and a copy is made to our electronic files.
We use industry standard security measures to safeguard and protect your information.
If we are unable to collect your personal information
If we are unable to collect your personal information, some or all of the following may occur:
we may be unable to provide the Courses or other products and services to you;
we may be unable to communicate with you to provide information about the Courses or other products or services that you have procured from us, or may intend to procure in the future;
we may be unable to tailor the content of our marketing communications to suit your preferences;
your experience when interacting with us may be delayed or not as efficient as you may expect.
Disclosure of your personal information
Your personal information may be disclosed in connection with any Purpose to any of the following:
our employees, contractors or service providers, to the extent reasonably necessary to fulfil our obligations to you;
our business advisors, including lawyers, accountants or other professional service providers, to the extent reasonably required;
suppliers, clients and other third parties with whom we have commercial relationships, for business, payment processing, delivery, marketing and related purposes;
if required by law, to any person authorised by such law.
Overseas disclosure of personal information
We may disclose your personal information to third parties and service providers located overseas in connection with any Purpose, including to overseas cloud computing hosts. We take reasonable steps to ensure that the overseas recipients of your personal information do not breach the privacy obligations relating to your personal information.
We may contact you with direct marketing communications and information about Courses or other products or services offered by us or our partners via telephone, email, SMS, or regular mail.
If you have indicated a preference for a method of communication, we will endeavour to use that method wherever practical to do so.
You may opt out of receiving marketing communications at any time by responding via the channel in which you received the marketing communication, or by contacting us (see contact information below). You can unsubscribe from emails by clicking the unsubscribe link on the footer of the email communication you have received.
How you may access your information
You may access your personal information held by Echos by making a request to us.
Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgCorrection of your personal information
If you would like us to update or amend your personal information, please contact us and we will make the requested amendments.
We may ask you to verify your identity to ensure that personal information we hold is not improperly accessed.
If you feel your privacy has been breached, please contact us using the contact information above setting out the circumstances and reasons for your complaint.
Global PresenceSchool of Design Thinking is an initiative from Echos - innovation lab.
Phone 1300 502 006
ABN 65 617 491 424
Rua Baluarte, 672
Phone +55 11 3476 2500